Monday, May 25, 2020
Gabriel, Bervelyn Ms. Carpick ENGL30S January 14, 2016 Symbolism in The Catcher in the Rye: WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s in HoldenÃ¢â¬â¢s Head? In J.D. SalingerÃ¢â¬â¢s The Catcher in the Rye, many symbols and images relate to the main character, Holden. Many of these symbols represent how Holden sees the life around him and what kind of person is Holden Caulfield. Such symbols include the red hunting hat, the ducks in Lagoon Lake, the museum, broken glass, a carousel, catcher in the rye, cigarettes and smoking, AllieÃ¢â¬â¢s baseball mitt, and the Little Shirley Beans record. These symbols are essential, for they are what started off with what looks significantly small, but later becomes the things that are essential to Holden growing up and becoming who he will become at the end of the chapter: accÃ ¬Ã ¬Ã ¬Ã ¬Ã ¬Ã ¬epted. After Holden accidentally leaves the fencing equipment on the subway and with his teammates angry at him, Holden goes off to buy a red hunting hat that he finds in a shop in New York. This red hunting hat is symbolic becau se it represents HoldenÃ¢â¬â¢s true character. For instance, when Holden returns to his room after visiting Mr. Spencer, he grabs his hunting hat and wears it by swinging Ã¢â¬Å"the old peak way around to the backÃ¢â¬âvery corny, [he]Ã¢â¬â¢ll admit, but [he] like[s] it that wayÃ¢â¬ (18). This represents HoldenÃ¢â¬â¢s character as a person who likes doing corny things, such wearing this red hunting hat in an odd, but corny way. However, even though Holden likes this hat, he only wears it in private and not inShow MoreRelatedThe Fall From Innocence : An Inescapable Reality Of Life2053 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesThis transition is characterized by one fundamental aspect -- change. In The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger, 17 year-old protagonist Holden Caulfield gradually begins to grasp this concept and change his perspectives on life. The story begins with Holden failing out of yet another school; Ã¢â¬Å"one of the worst schools [Holden has] ever went to. It was full of pho nies. And mean guysÃ¢â¬ (167). To avoid returning home, Holden leaves school two days early to New York City, where he encounters and interactsRead MoreAnalyzing Novels Short Stories1166 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIdentifying essential plot points will help you to analyze, interpret, and explain the story. The plot is the main sequence of events that make up the story. In short stories the plot is usually centered around one experience or significant moment * What is the most important event? * How is the plot structured? Is it linear, chronological or does it move around? * Is the plot believable? Characterization Characterization deals with how the characters in the story are described. In shortRead MoreAnalysis Of The Book A New Hope 2190 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesChapter 1 Ã¢â¬â Every Trip Is a Quest (Except When It s Not) Response List the five aspects of the QUEST and then apply them to something you have read (or viewed) in the form used on pages 3Ã¢â¬ 5. A quest must consist of a Ã¢â¬Å"questerÃ¢â¬ or character pursuing said quest, a destination, justification to journey to that destination, challenges the quester faces along the way and, finally, the true reason for making the journey. A movie that undoubtedly mirrors these components is Star Wars Episode IV: A New
Thursday, May 14, 2020
Introduction The history of police has been an important part of the American society for a long time. Throughout the course of history, American policing has been the biggest impact of how the law that all citizen follows. They have been using the format from an early English society where the citizens were both responsible for their action they take upon the law enforcement and in the early stages of expansion in their communities. Policing has been changed rapidly over the years. The United States of America is built from the U.S. Constitution Bill of Rights, where these right implies to everyone that is a citizen in America. The police play a major role in making sure that all people gets their rights no matter where they from, their religion and the color of their skin per the First Amendment. The Criminal Law system has changed as time has change for the better. LetÃ¢â¬â¢s introduce you the main person that had made the policing a wide know achievement for their communities, that would be because of Sir Robert Peel, a British Home Secretary, who had created a 3,000-strong police force to help fight against crimes. Peel has brought together and guided his officers through Parliament Act for the improvement that they made in their communities and near the metropolis areas, which is better known as the Metropolitan Police Act that occur in 1829. This act has created the first police to be established in London (Siegel 2016). This great accomplished of Sir Robert Peel was toShow MoreRelatedThe New Jim Crow Laws1667 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIn the book the New Jim Crow Laws there is racial discrimination on the African American people in the American society. What is racial discrimination? It is refusing somebody based on race. In the United States we have been racial discriminate on the African American people and that is what cause the south a nd north to go civil wat was because slavery and racism that existed and even still to this day. In the south the black were less and treated unequal to them historically even today were areRead MoreTaiwan And Its Effect On Young Adult1487 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesRisk Legal System Taiwan implements civil law in the legal system, compared to the United States, which has been applied in common law in the legal system. There is the biggest difference between common law and Civil law that is the power of judges authority. In common law, judges arenÃ¢â¬â¢t limited by the rules. The final decision depends on the jury not the judge. Also, the judge will give the judgement by using a previous example or a similar case rather than the code which written in the law. On theRead MoreThe Segregation Of African American Community1720 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesEmancipation Proclamation, African Americans in Southern States were still faced with the most distinct forms of racism. The so-called Ã¢â¬Å"Jim CrowÃ¢â¬ laws that were present in United States at the time, served to segregate blacks and whites from all aspects of public life, including schools, public transport and juries. Often faced with extreme right-wing terrorist groups such as the white supremacist Klu Klux K lan, many among the African American community chose to live in a society of oppression that to activelyRead MoreThurgood Marshall Essay1578 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThurgood Marshall was a great African American Civil Rights activist who changed a lot of lives in the United States. As a passionate lawyer and prominent Supreme Court justice he fought for Civil Rights and social justice in the courts and believed that racial integration is best for all schools. Very early in his professional life Marshall broke down racial barriers and overcame resistance despite the odds. He then became a role model of the disciplined leader, although he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have theRead MoreThe Civil Rights Movement : Thurgood Marshall Law1501 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesMarshall Law By Kai Jalen Nugent Throughout the 20th century, Thurgood Marshall blazed the trail for the Civil Rights Movement from two sides of the American Legal System, both as a lawyer, and as a Justice of the Supreme Court. MarshallÃ¢â¬â¢s initial rise to fame came as a result of his success as the head lawyer for the Brown family in Brown vs. The Board of Education. Later, Marshall was appointed to the Supreme Court, making him the first ever African American Supreme Court Justice in American historyRead MoreFreedom And African American History Essay1680 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesFreedom And African American History 1 XIN LI The United States is a immigrant country, which faces varieties of problems. The African American problem is one of the most serious one. Racial segregation is a deep-rooted social problem, which reflects in every field in the United States. For example, education, labor market and criminal justice system. In the aspect of educationRead MoreDemocracy : Democracy And Autocracy1055 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesdemocracy and they are completely opposites of each other. The two types of democracies include liberal and illiberal. In the article, Zakaria warns us about the rise of illiberal democracy (the worst possible form of government). From the beginning of time, democracy has meant the rule of the people but when the power gets into the wrong hands and there are no limits on that power, we are faced with illiberal democracy, a form of government growing rapidly as we speak. The democracy we think when weRead MoreEssay about Hist204 African American Annotated Bibliography1098 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAfrican Americans Hester 1 The African American race and the events they have been involved in from 1865- resent day, have single handedly contributed to and shaped the race they are today and the issues they deal with now. There are six specific areas of history that had great impact an effect on shaping African Americans, their culture, the society, and even social status to date. These events include The Civil War, this marked the beginning of freedom for blacks or so they thought. It directlyRead MoreRace Relations Between African Americans and Whites Following Reconstruction761 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesFollowing what was arguably the most turbulent time in American history; Reconstruction had far-reaching effects on a number of areas of life in the United States. In the Deep South, one of the clearest impacts could be seen on racial relations, specifically between whites and newly-freed African Americans. Legally, dramatic changes had been made at the federal level, providing African Americans with a host of rights that had never been offered them before. It was no wonder, then, that former slaveRead MoreThe New Jim Crow : Mass Incarceration Essay1401 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Michelle AlexanderÃ¢â¬â¢s book, The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness, examines mass incarceration in the United States, why the criminal justice system works the way it does towards minorities, the detriments associated with mass incarceration as it relates to offenders, and much more. In the introduction of her book, Alexander immediately paints the harsh reality of mass incarceration with the story of Jarvious Cotton who is denied the right to vote among other rights because
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Every man, woman, or child has his or her breaking point, no matter how hard they try to hold it back. In Night by Elie Wiesel the main theme of the entire book is the human living condition. The quality of human life is overwhelming because humans have the potential to make amazing discoveries that help all humans. Elie Wiesel endures some of the most cruel living conditions known to mankind. This essay explains the themes of chapter one, chapter four, chapter eight in Night by Elie Wiesel. Nothing is lost if faith is still present. In Night by Elie Wiesel, the main theme of chapter one is faith. While speaking to Moishe the Beadle, Elie says, Ã¢â¬Å"I pray to the the God within me for the strength to ask him the real questionsÃ¢â¬ (Wiesel 5).Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Clench your teeth and waitÃ¢â¬ (Wiesel 53). In order to survive Elie must save his anger, so the young French woman helps calm Elie down. This quote show evidence that the main theme of chapter four is survi val. While speaking to Elie, Franek says, Ã¢â¬Å"I knew it, I knew that I would win, kid. Better late than never, And because you made me wait, it will also cost you a ration of bread. A ration of bread for one of my pals, a famous dentist from Warshaw. To pay him for pulling out your crownÃ¢â¬ (56). In order to survive, Elie must give up his golden crown, and a ration of his own bread. This quote shows evidence that the theme of chapter four is survival. While the prisoners line up for role call, a Kapo says, Ã¢â¬Å" An ordinary inmate does not have the right to mix into other peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s affairs. One of you does not seem to have understood this point. I shall therefore try to make him understand clearly, once and for allÃ¢â¬ (57). After Elie gets caught spying on the Kapo, he gets beat for breaking the rules. These quotes show clear evidence that the main theme of chapter four is survival. Sometimes it is good to follow the rules when someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s life is on the line. The theme of chapter seven in Night by Elie Wiesel is conformity. After the train stops a German orders the people that are still alive to throw the dead out, Elie say, Ã¢â¬Å"The living were glad. They would have more room. Volunteers began the task. They touched those who remained on the groundÃ¢â¬ (WieselShow MoreRelatedElie Wiesel s The Holocaust1315 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesWorld War II. The memoir, Night by Elie Wiesel is based on WieselÃ¢â¬â¢s experiences in concentration camps, in order to give readers an insight of someone who was a victim of the Holocaust. The young narrator, Elie Wiesel, faces countless struggles for survival among the horrors of the Holocaust. In the memoir, Eliezer, the passionately, devoted boy with a benevolent family, is taken from his home and sent to a concentration camp. Through their unstable and dangerous journey, Elie is detached from his motherRead MoreElie W iesel Night Reflection794 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesElie Wiesel was born in the Romanian town of Sighet. His parents came from Orthodox and Hasidic Jewish families. Both of hi parents died in the Nazi concentration camps, as did his younger sister; his two elder sister survived. After the war, Wiesel went an Orphanage in France, studies at the Sorbonne, and became a journalist. The name of the book is call the Night. It were written in the 1955-1958. It also were written from South America, France. The book was published in Argentina, France. TheRead MoreThe Holocaust: Night by Elie Wiesel1635 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesJews were persecuted, tortured and slaughtered in concentration camps (Ã¢â¬Å"The HolocaustÃ¢â¬ 1). Night by Elie Wiesel is the powerful memoir of his experiences during the Holocaust. Night shows the tragedy of the Holocaust through the use literary devices, including the themes of loss of faith and cruelty toward other human beings, night as a symbol of suffering and f ear, and the use of first person narrative. Night allows the reader to emotionally connect with the victims of the Holocaust, encourages themRead MoreTheme Of Torture In Night By Elie Wiesel724 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesseeming like one long never ending night. Barely anyone today could, however this was a reality for Elie Wiesel, author of the award winning book Night. The book is a wonderful insight to the events of the holocaust. It is filled with grueling instances of survival, family, and even the inhumanity of man, however another kind of torture that is slightly less obvious is constantly referenced throughout this autobiography, and that is the loss of faith. Although this theme may seem less prevalent, it isRead MoreNight, By Elie Wiesel Essay1276 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesNight is a first-hand account of life for Elie Wiesel as a young Jewish teenage boy living in Hungary and eventually sent to Auschwitz with his family. The moment his family exits the cattle car the horror of Au schwitz sets in. His mother and sisters become separated from him and his father immediately, their fate sealed. Elie stays with his father and right away a stranger is giving them tips on how to survive and stay together. Immediately told to lie about their ages, making Elie a little olderRead MoreNight, By Elie Wiesel842 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesmajor themes of Night and the imagery that the author, Elie Wiesel, uses to create them. The themes we will discuss are identity, silence, and night. !!!About the Book If you were an observant Jew who believed in a loving God, then you and your family were captured by a group of ill-intentioned people, causing the death of your family, what would you think about whether God and humans are good or not? That is the main concern of Eliezer, the main character in Night. Night wasRead MoreAnalysis Of Eliezer Wiesels Novel Night920 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Eliezer is appalled at his own failure to defend his father from getting beat. Eliezer Wiesel is a famous Holocaust survivor, a political activist, professor, and a novelist. He is the recipient of many different accomplishments and achievements throughout his life. Eliezer was born on September 30, 1928; he lived in Sighet Transylvania that is now present- day Romania. He is most known for his novel Night, which is mainly about his survival during the Holocaust, German intentions towards JewsRead MoreThe Common Theme Of Dehumanization In Night By Elie Wiesel1421 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesfood to live. All of these situations and more is what the Jews went through during the Holocaust. During the period of 1944 - 1945, a man by the name of Elie Wiesel was one of the millions of Jews that were experiencing the wrath of HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s destruction in the form of intense labor and starvation. The novel Night written by the same man, Elie Wiesel, highlights the constant struggle they faced every single day during the war. From the first acts of throwing the Jews into ghettos, to the grueling intensiveRead MoreNight: Heart-Wrenching and Traumatic Themes1189 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesnovel, Night, by Elie Wiesel, contains heart-wrenching as well as traumatic themes. The novel unfolds through the eyes of a Jewish boy named Eliezer, who incurs the true satanic nature of the Nazis. As the Nazis continue to commit inhumane acts of discrimination, three powerful themes arise: religion, night, and memory. As the novel begins to unfold, Anti-Semitism does as well. As Wiesel demonstrates in the novel, Ã¢â¬Å"Three days later, a new decree: Every Jew had to wear the yellow star.Ã¢â¬ (Wiesel, 11)Read More Holocaust Essay3093 Words Ã |Ã 13 Pagesbetween day and night is defined by an absolute line of division. For the Jewish culture in the twentieth century, the dissimilarity between life and death is bisected by a definitive line - the Holocaust. Accounts of life during the genocide of the Jewish culture emerged from within the considerable array of Holocaust survivors, among of which are Elie WieselÃ¢â¬â¢s Night and Simon WiesenthalÃ¢â¬â¢s The Sunflower. Both accounts of the Holocaust diverge in the main concepts in each work; Wiesel and Wiesenthal
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Folk vs rock Essay Music is the way we speak, who we are, where we came from, what we feel, the things we remember, and music often communicates the things we are unable to. I have an extensive group of friends. The biggest difficulty Ive noticed about this is our music tastes. Riding in the car is often like attending a court hearing over control over the c.d. player. The most common debate is usually rock versus folk. Rock and folk are two of my preferred music styles. When Im experiencing an intense emotion, these are my music styles of choice. These two music styles are both very forceful. They both have a heavy effect on the human state of emotion. They are also both be very nude musically due to the expression of intimate topics. They can both strip an orange of its skin for you, leaving you to taste it down to the pulp. When listening to Joni Mitchell, a legendary folk singer, I am overcome with emotion. She has such an breathtakingly unforgettable voice. Her lyrics have done noting short of sen ding chills down my spine. However, Courtney Love, guitarist and vocalist of Hole, is known for stirring up emotion in her music. She is very unobstructed and electric with her music style. She screens nothing when she is onstage. She lets emotion flow. Ive noticed in a lot of folk music, the lyrics hold me more than the music itself. Its nice to hear a light guitar or perhaps a frivolous piano in the distance, but words are generally the core here. When listening to folk music, I usually find myself mellow and very composed. However, when I listen to rock music, Im usually there for the beat or a remarkable guitar solo. The words are rarely what makes this music forceful for me. On the days I listen to rock music, Im often hyped or intoxicated about something. Ive noticed that when Im provoked I have to have loud music on. Of course, guitarist Ani Difranco does the trick sometimes, but more traditionally, Im seeking Hole. It would be nearly impossible for me to tell you which of these music styles is better. I think, like most things in life, it really depends on how you feel as to what you prefer. I think labeling either of these things better than the other would be unfair. Ill leave you with the words of Ani Difranco who is noteworthy of both rock and folk. Here she is telling her audience through lyrics that not everything is able to be understood, rated, or labeled. Which is quite how I felt trying to compare the two varied styles of music.Nobody is lying still the stories dont add up,Why must we try to understand of what well never get a hold of,Its like trying to put the ocean in a paper cup Bibliography:
Friday, April 10, 2020
Ancient Flutes, Evidence of Prehistoric Music Making Ancient flutes made of animal bone or carved from mammoth (extinct elephant) ivory are among the earliest examples of the use of ancient music- and one of the key recognized measures of behavioral modernity for modern human beings. The earliest forms of ancient flutes were made to be played like a modern recorder, that is held vertically. They were most often constructed from the hollow bones of animals, particularly bird wing bones. Bird bones are extremely well-suited for making flutes, as they are already hollow, thin and strong, so that they may be perforated without too much danger of fracturing. Later forms, carved from mammoth ivory, involve a greater grasp of the technology, including carving out the tubular form into two pieces and then fitting the pieces together with some adhesive, perhaps bitumen. Oldest Possible Ancient Flute The oldest possible bone flute discovered to date comes from a Middle Paleolithic site in Slovenia, the Divje Babe I site, a Neanderthal occupation site with Mousterian artifacts. The flute came from a stratigraphic level dated to 43,000 /- 700 RCYBP, and it was made on a juvenile cave bear femur. The Divje Babe I flute, if thats what it is, has two roughly circular holes punctured into it, and three more damaged potential holes. The layer has other gnawed cave bear bones, and some detailed scholarly research into the bones taphonomy- that is to say, the wear and markings on the bone- lead some scholars to conclude that this flute likely resulted from carnivore gnawing. Hohle Fels Flutes The Swabian Jura is an area in Germany where ivory figurines and debris from their production have been identified in numbers from the Upper Paleolithic levels. Three sites- Hohle Fels, Vogelherd, and GeiÃÅ¸enklÃ ¶sterle- have produced flute fragments, all dated between about 30,000-40,000 years ago. In 2008, one nearly complete flute and two other flute fragments were discovered at the Hohle Fels Upper Paleolithic site, located in the Swabian Jura. The longest of these was made on the wing bone of a griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus). Discovered in 12 pieces and reassembled, the bone measures 21.8 centimeters (8.6 inches) long and about 8 millimeters (~1/3 of an inch) in diameter. The Hohle Fels flute has five finger holes and the blowing end has been deeply notched. Two other fragmented flutes found at Hohle Fels are made of ivory. The longest fragment is 11.7 mm (.46 in) in length, and oval (4.2x1.7 mm, or .17x.07 in) in cross-section; the other is 21.1 mm (.83 in) and also oval (7.6 mm x 2.5 mm, or .3x.1 in) in cross-section. Other Flutes Two other sites from the Swabian Jura in Germany have produced ancient flutes. Two flutes- one bird bone and one made up of ivory fragments- have been recovered from the Aurignacian levels of the Vogelherd site. The GeiÃÅ¸enklÃ ¶sterle site excavations have recovered three more flutes, one from a swans wing bone, one from a possible swan wing bone, and one from mammoth ivory. A total of 22 bone flutes have been identified at the Isturitz site in the French Pyrenees, most from later Upper Paleolithic proveniences, circa 20,000 years bp. The Jiahu site, a Neolithic Peiligang culture site in China dating between ca. 7000 and 6000 BC, contained several bone flutes. Sources Taphonomy of a suggested MChase PG, and Nowell A. 1998. Paleolithic bone flute from Slovenia.iddle Current Anthropology 39(4):549-553.Conard NJ, Malina M, and Munzel SC. 2009. New flutes document the earliest musical tradition in southwestern Germany. Nature 460(7256):737-740.Fitch WT. 2006. The biology and evolution of music: A comparative perspective. Cognition 100(1):173-215.Higham T, Basell L, Jacobi R, Wood R, Ramsey CB, and Conard NJ. 2012. Testing models for the beginnings of the Aurignacian and the advent of figurative art and music: The radiocarbon chronology of Geissenklosterle. Journal of Human Evolution(0).King S, and Snchez Santiago G. 2011. Soundscapes of the Everyday in Ancient Oaxaca, Mexico. Archaeologies 7(2):387-422.Morley I. 2006. Mousterian musicianship? the case of the Divje Babe I Bone. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 25(4): 317-333.Pettitt PB. 2008. Art and the Middle-to-Upper Paleolithic transition in Europe: Comments on the archaeological arguments for an ear ly Upper Paleolithic antiquity of the Grotte Chauvet art. Journal of Human Evolution 55(5):908-917. Yang X-Y, Kadereit A, Wagner GA, Wagner I, and Zhang J-Z. 2005. TL and IRSL dating of Jiahu relics and sediments: clue of 7th millennium BC civilization in central China. Journal of Archaeological Science 32(7):1045-1051.
Monday, March 9, 2020
Social Classes and Class Structure Introduction According to Karl Marx, analyzing social classes and structures as well as variations in the structures are critical in understanding modern capitalism other social systems or even modes of production.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Social Classes and Class Structure specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Marx and Engels argue that the communist in the manifesto Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬ ¦the history of all hitherto existing in the society is the class strugglesÃ¢â¬ (Marx and Engels 35). Analyzing class distribution and struggles is relevant in establishing knowledge about capitalism. Social classes are divided into two main classes with distinct features one comprises the owners or possessors of property as well as the means of production. This group performs the role of production. The other factor is concerned producers and controllers of the surpluses in relation to human social labor. The economic factors in the m odern world govern social relationships in capitalism than it did in ancient times. This paper therefore discusses stratification and conflicts that exist in society. It bases on the statements made by Marx in scholarly works. Relevance of Marx Ideas Divisions in Capitalism Earlier societies consisted of several sections or clusters that can be perceived to be classes. They were not classes parse but elites not specifically based on economic factors but also incorporated other things such as priesthood, knights or military elite. In the modern society, other classes of people such as capital owners, petty bourgeoisie and peasants are incorporated in the production process.Advertising Looking for essay on social sciences? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In spite of Lumpen proletariat existing, they are not primarily in terms of the dynamics of capitalism or its expansion and development. Bourgeoisie The bourgeoisie co ntrols the means of production such as capital and labor. The capital exploit the workers by misusing their labor meaning that they produce much but are paid less. They utilize the surplus value created from employment of labor to accumulate and expand their capital. Owning massive resources is not equivalent to possessing capital power and labor; it does not make an individual to be bourgeoisie. To be a capitalist or member of bourgeoisie class entails the ownership of huge capital, active participation in capital accumulation, using capital to organize production, employ and exploit labor and finally make the capital self regulating by using the surplus value to continue the cycle of capital accumulation (Marx and Engels 48). Bourgeoisies began in cities of medieval Europe. This was during the development of mercantilism, artisans and manufacturing. The main aim of economic survival for the people was increase wealth through trade and commerce. The bourgeoisies needed much freedom in marketing activities and economic expansion activities. Capital ownership was achieved by labor employment (industrial capital) while for some it was acquired through trade (merchant capital). Those who employed workers to create and expand capital succeeded in acquiring capital consequently leading the sector of bourgeoisie.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Social Classes and Class Structure specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The proletariat The workers only own their labor implying that they earn their living through their ability to work. They do not own any resources in form of capital meaning that they own nothing apart from their hands, bodies and minds/skills. The Proletariat works hard to sustain their lives and provide basic needs to their relatives and other dependants. They have to seek employment if they are to continue coexisting in the society. For an employee, working for a capitalist is not peaceful instead; the kind of relation that exists is exploitative in nature because the worker performs many activities with insufficient returns. The exploitative relationship between the worker and the employer is cumulative meaning that it keeps on repeating itself. The capitalists accumulate wealth by underpaying the worker (Marx and Engels 50). The workers produce goods and services that belong to the capitalist meaning that workers are also properties of capitalists. They produce goods that create surpluses to the bourgeoisie but they remain in poverty. Exploitation occurs in every dayÃ¢â¬â¢s production process, which ends up restricting workers from acquiring wealth and regenerates the best working environments for further exploitation (Marx and Engels 50). The existing mode of production is arranged in such a way that the property owners continue enjoying better opportunities while workers continue occupying their current positions.Advertising Looking for essay on social sciences? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Capitalists accumulate the excesses obtained in the production process by workers. The intersection point between workers and capitalists is the production process. The capitalist who create struggles and intrigues hence causing tension in the society exploits the workers. Alienation of Proletariat Although the workers are the direct producers of goods, they are slaves of the goods they produce. The produced good has more value than the worker does because they are offered maximum security and stored in safe places. The workers produce goods that they do not consume, they produce for others. The increase in product value decreases the viability of the workers. The worker ends up being treated the same way goods are treated, treated as equals. Workers are perpetually pushed to the periphery leading to alienation from the process of production. The way workers relate to the whole process of production leaves a lot to be desired because the relationship is unnatural and uncalled for. T he workers never find satisfaction because they satisfy the interests of other individuals (Capitalists). The worker views the whole process of production as forced labor because actually it is inhuman. The worker ends up being alienated from the self because of the last two forms of alienation. The worker portrays two personalities; one is the feeling of belonging to capitalism because the worker is separated from real consciousness. In the other hand, workers perceive themselves as human beings ((Marx and Engels 54). The last form of alienation that dissatisfied Marx is alienation from others implying that the worker is separated from other people. Workers cannot relate normally to others because individuals with separated self cannot interact in accordance to societal norms. They view others as properties of capitalism. It is at this point that Marx noted with finally that only a revolution would salvage humankind from all these troubles. Social Stratification: Marxist Perspectiv e Marx observed in his statements that capitalism brings about differentiations in society. The rich are at the top while the poor are at the bottom perishing in great poverty. In modern capitalistic societies, classes differentiate people. According to Marx, the capitalistic culture is a divisive force not an integrating one. The existing social groups are differentiated in property meaning that some benefit more than others do. The owners of the means of production who enjoy power, prestige and luxurious life occupy the higher positions. Social stratification basing on property is found in all human societies. For societies to survive therefore role allocation is indispensable. Society attaches unequal rewards to social positions because people differ in ability and positions differ in terms of importance. Unfortunately, the important positions benefit the elite (Marx and Engels 56). There is a heated debate on whether unequal rewards function to motivate talented individuals. Gen erally, social stratification basing on capital is a mechanism in which some exploit others. The elite uses the institutions of the state to advance their interests, in fact Marx termed the state as the committee of dominant class. Those with highest rewards enjoy superior life chances such as access to high education, quality housing and special Medicare. Those who occupy important positions erect barriers to recruitment of others into comfortable positions. They use capital power to restrict access to their positions by creating unnecessary demands to the position services. The different rewards exist to propel hostility, suspicion and mistrust. It gives the low class the feeling of exclusion from larger society leading to formation of solidarity, which might cause tensions and more conflicts with threats of revolutions. Conclusion The statements made by Karl Marx serve to describe how people should liberate themselves. Liberation would be achieved through peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s consciou sness. People will arise up against the existing mode of production because of its social injustices. The mode hands a few the power of investment while the majority survive at the mercy of the owners of the means of production. The state cannot liberate the masses because the capitalist to enhance self-interests uses it. Exploitation and alienation are the most pressing issues among the workers; they are the same things that disillusioned Marx to an extent of calling for a revolution to guarantee mass happiness. Work Cited Marx, Karl and Engels, Fredrick. The Communist Manifesto: introduction by Martin Malia, New York: Penguin group, 1998, pg. 35.
Saturday, February 22, 2020
Analysis of Canoe Restaurant in Pasadena - Assignment Example As a prerequisite for sale contacts, completion of the Canoe restaurant was necessitated andÃ paramount. The Los Angeles restaurant grading ordinance got formulated to monitor, evaluate and recommend restaurantsÃ particularlyÃ on their food handling methods,Ã preparationÃ and storage regulations (Hutter 15). The grading ordinancesÃ haveÃ enabled customers, and authorities to achieve peace of mind in terms of food quality and health (Hutter 20). After inspection of theÃ CaneoÃ restaurant, IÃ wishÃ toÃ giveÃ theÃ inspectionÃ report as follows: First, the restaurant assistants were reluctant toÃ observeÃ some basic food handlingÃ procedure; Failure to clean andÃ sanitizeÃ theÃ instrumentsÃ used for chopping foodstuff. The kitchens chopping instrument gets used on different kinds of food, for example, beef and chicken. This increases the risks of food contamination for both customers and the workers. Secondly, theÃ chef, hisÃ assistant and the entire kitchen staffÃ hadÃ a setÃ ofÃ completeÃ protective wear although none of them hadÃ hairÃ nets. This increases theÃ possibilityÃ of foreign material such as hair strands toÃ dropÃ in the food andÃ thus contaminateÃ it. The refrigeratorÃ contentÃ is not labeled clearly. This makes it confusing for the chefs toÃ pickÃ theÃ rightÃ ingredients for the preparation of menus. Some of the kitchen units do not contain thermometers for measuring theÃ exactÃ temperature of food to prevent them from contamination. There is also laxity in food handling; foodsÃ do not get wrappedÃ but instead get left to open air. This too increases theÃ possibilityÃ of contamination. Finally, lack of maintaining the required kitchen temperature from the required optimum temperature hinders proper food storage. However, Canoe restaurant demonstrated positive results in kitchen practising habits. First, there is a highÃ levelÃ of cleanliness maintained in terms of personal hygiene, equipment, clothing and the kitchen surroundings. An excellent grading result depends onÃ the perfectionÃ of the restaurantsÃ¢â¬â¢ staffsÃ¢â¬â¢. TheÃ chef gets tasked with the abilityÃ and skills to ensureÃ per fectÃ food handling, storage and preparation (Hutter 26).